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  • Business spirit was not indigenous to the United States; rather, it grew from the soil о European capitalism. But huge industrial enterprises such as railroads, with their extensive managerial hierarchies, became more prevalent and more powerful in the United State: than elsewhere. Unlike most other countries, in the United States industrial bureaucracies particularly railroads, grew faster and became larger than the government's own bureaucracy; in 1890, a dozen railroads employed over 100,000 workers, while the U.S. Civil Service in Washington numbered just over 20,000. J. Pierpont (J. P.) Morgan, perhaps the most flamboyant of the entrepreneurs, operated on a scale of magnificence. He displayed ostentation and grandeur in his private and business life. He and his companions gambled, sailed yachts, gave lavish parties, built palatial homes and bought the art treasures of Europe. In contrast, such men as John D. Rockefeller and Henry Ford demonstrated puritanical qualities. They retained their small-town values and life-styles. As church-goers, they left a sense of responsibility to others. They demonstrated that personal virtues could bring success; theirs was the gospel of work and thrift. Later their heirs would establish the largest philanthropic foundations in America. While upper-class European intellectuals generally looked on commerce with disdain, most Americans - living in a society with a more fluid class structure - embraced the idea of moneymaking with enthusiasm. They enjoyed the risk and excitement of business enterprise, as well as the higher living standards and potential rewards of power and acclaim that business success brought.