I. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. В разделе (б) обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций.
Astronomers have measured the exact length of the day.
Newton gathered the results of the experiments which had been. made by many other scientists and investigators.
The boiling point of water depends upon the pressure in the vessel in which the water is boiling.
This plant was making various kinds of instruments during last five years.
They are given the data illustrating friction.
His works and investigations in the field of theoretical mechanics are always referred to.
II. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, то есть укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола-сказуемого.
Matter consists of one or a number of basic elements accruing nature.
When heated to a certain temperature, this alloy increases in volume.
The atoms form combinations known as molecules.
Reading English technical papers one can meet various abbreviations.
III. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент.
A computer should solve complicated problems many millions of times faster than a mathematician.
New types of plastics had to be obtained for space technology.
A moving body can do work by virtue of its speed.
These students will be allowed to perform this work by the end of this month.
IV. Прочитайте и устно переведите с 1-го по 5-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2, 4, 5 абзацы.
1. From everyday experience people have learned that the amount of energy which is required to pull a load across в surface depends on the character of the surface. It is much easier to pull a cart over an asphalt road than over road which is cobbled. When an object is moving in respect to another against which it is pressed with a certain force it gives rise to a force which is opposing the motion. This force is called friction. Hence the resistance to the motion of two bodies in contact with one another is determined by friction. Friction may prevent the motion entirely or it may make the relative acceleration of the surfaces less than it otherwise would be.
2. In general, friction can have any direction and its direction at a given moment is such as to oppose the motion of a body or its tendency to motion. At any rate, friction always manifests itself as a force that opposes motion. It causes losses in every engine and machine. Part of the useful mechanical energy is transformed into useless heat because of friction. In addition to that, it wears away metal in the moving parts, making repairs necessary.
3. Engineering, in its turn, tries to overcome these losses by various means. In order to decrease friction in the working parts of the machines, their fictional surfaces are lubricated and ball bearings or another bearings are introduced. In case it in necessary, a great part of the heat developed due to friction may be carried off by means of circulating water or air blasts.
4. In fact, friction in the moving parts of all mechanical devices brings endless difficulties. In certain cases friction becomes a helpful necessity but not only causes wear and losses. But for friction our world would be strange. Without friction between the tires and the road, a car could not move. It would be impossible to walk, nor even to stand up in spite of all our efforts, to build houses using present-day methods. Nails would fall out, screws and bolts would not hold because they require friction.
5. So friction is a complex physical phenomenon. In some cases friction may be detrimental, in many other cases it is frequently a necessity. There are several types of friction, namely, sliding friction and rolling friction, static and kinetic friction.