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  • Miniaturization.
    Also important in modern electronics is miniaturization and superminiaturization of electronic instruments and their elements. Certain achievements can be reported in this field too.
    Semiconductor devices which are being used to help electron valves reduce the size of instruments considerably. As new synthetic materials appear, parts of electronic instruments like capacitors, resistors, transformers, etc., can be cut in size dozens and hundreds of times.
    Vast prospects for the miniaturization of electronic instruments open up with the development or micro-modules-tiny ceramic plates carrying the necessary parts of circuit-miniature semiconductor devices, capacitors, resistors, transformers.
    The next step in microminiaturization is the development of micro thin film circuits. Use is not made of separate, even superminiature elements but of extremely thin films of a particular shape placed one upon another. A film of this type, one square centimeter in size, would take the place of up to 100 elements of a circuit. A unit of this type would be no thicker than a few microns.
    Molecular electronics open up absolutely new horizons.
    There is good reason to assume that if superminiature elements can be developed – artificial models of nerve cells of loving organism – neurons – it will be possible to get about 200 million “parts” in one cubic centimeter. This is approximately the density of elements in the human brain.
    Виталий Спасибо!

  • Миниатюризация.
    Также важным в современной электроникеявляются миниатюризация и суперминиатюризация электронных приборов и ихэлементов. В этой области также имеются определнные достижения.
    Полупроводниколвые устройства, которые используются в электроннолучевых трубках для значительного уменьшения величины прибора. По мере появления новых синтетических материалов части электронных приборов , такие как конденсаторы, резисторы, трасформаторы и.т.д. могут быть уменьшены в размере в десятки и сотни раз.
    Большие перспективы для миниатюризации электронных приборов открываются с развитием микромодулей-мельчайших керамичеих пластин,заключающих в себе необходимые части полупроводниковых устройств миниатюрных схем, конденсаторов, резисторов, трансформаторов.
    Следующим этапом в развитии микроминиатюризации является создание тонкопленочных микросхем. Ипользуются не отдельные, даже суперминиатюрные элементы, а чрезвычайно тонкие пленки определенной формы, которые помещаются одна на другую. Пленка такого типа, размером в один квадратный сантиметр, заняла бы место примерно ста элементов в схеме. Блок такого типа был бы не толще нескольких микронов.
    Молекулярная электроника открывает совершенно новые горизонты.
    Есть основание предположить, что если будут разработаны суперминиатюрные элементы-искусственные модели нервных клеток любящего организма-нейронов-, то можно будет получить около 200 миллионов "частей" в одном кубическом сантиметре. Это примерная плотность элементов человеческого мозга.

  • Виталий Спасибо большое!

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    Our present age is characterized by its exponentially growing1 complexity -almost any statistical measure demonstrates such behaviour. The densities of men and machines are higher, and yet we go farther and faster away from each other. As a result, population density, transportation speed, telecommunications volume, and information-processing volume are growing exponentially. There is no indication that this growth is turning over2; hence, we may expect the complexity of our existence to increase still further. Man's attempt to cope with this increasing complexity has been more through electronics, through complex computers, transmission methods, and automation. It is becoming a marvelous extension of man's senses and mind. It provides the essential instruments man needs to cope with the staggering amount of information he must process to control his complex world. Early large-scale systems were primarily extensions of smaller simpler system. This led to a detailed specification of the elemental components3 by the user. Very often these statements of requirements without knowledge 4 of the component development possibilities led to unforeseen compatibility and interconnection difficulties when the components were assembled into system. The component designer has often developed components only in terms of5 his own specialized technology and without knowledge of their eventual system function and environment or their compatibility with other specialized components of the future system application.
    In the past microminiaturization in electronics has been largely a practical enterprise6 guided by experience, however, now fundamental relations7 in this field are emerging. It should first be made clear what the term "microelectronics" implies, since the name appears in many forms - microminiaturization, integrated electronics, microsystems electronics, molecular electronics, etc., and since the term is in itself somewhat misleading. Microelectronics surrounds the entire body8 of the electronic art which is connected with, or applied to, the realization of electronic circuits, subsystems, or the entire systems from extremely small electronic parts (devices).
    The primary interest in microelectronics stems not from the fact that small size can be achieved, but from the much more important fact that the techniques used should ultimately lead to low cost, high reliability, and improved performance9. Small size is of extreme value in many applications, such as in space or in portable equipment. However, in the overwhelming number of applications, small size is of only secondary interest, while low cost, high reliability and improved performance are of great importance. Glossary contains microelectronic definitions for commonly used terms, for example, active device, active substrate,

    component, device, electrical element, hybrid integrated circuit, integrated circuit, magnetic integrated circuit, microsystems electronics, module, packaging, packaging density, passive substrate, semiconductor integrated circuit, subsystem, substrate, transistance, thin-film integrated circuit, etc.
    Scaled-down 10 separate component parts such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes, transistors and other separate electronic parts with random or uniform form factors are used to assemble microminiature electronic circuits. Component parts are integrated into one single circuit. This approach has been developed along two major technologies.
    In film circuits the component parts are evaporated, electroplated and a separate substrate performs only the function of a mechanical support. Usually the component parts are interconnected in the process of their fabrication. In semi-conductor integrated circuits the semiconductor material is used to fabricate component parts within a single piece of semiconductor, which then becomes an entire circuit or part of a circuit.
    A monolithic piece of material is treated in such a way as to possess an
    electronic circuit function. Unlike previous categories, component parts in
    functional circuit cannot be distinguished from one another, and the structure
    itself cannot be divided without its stated electronic function being destroyed. It
    should be noted that there can be many instances where the microelectronic
    circuit may combine more than one of these approaches in a single structure. For
    example, many thin-film circuits use individually attached active semiconductor
    devices, such as diodes and transistors. There are also circuits which combine
    the semiconductor integrated circuits with thin-film component parts. These and
    similar combinations of various approaches are commonly referred to as hybrid
    approaches or hybrid circuitry.

  • Semiconductor
    Semiconductor is an electric conductor with resistivity in the range between metals and insulators, in which the electric charge-carrier concentration increases with the increasing temperature range. There are semiconductor integrated cir¬cuits. They are the physical realization of a number of electric elements connected with each other on or within a substrate to perform the function of a circuit.
    An integrated circuit is fabricated upon or within the supporting material, which is called a substrate1. Sometimes an integrated circuit is attached to it. Such a substrate which may serve as a physical support and heat-exchanger to a thin-film integrated circuit and exhibits no transistance is a passive substrate. Exam¬ples of a passive substrate are glass, ceramic, and similar materials. A substrate may be active, when parts of it display transistance. Examples of active substrates are single crystals of semiconductor materials within which transistors and diodes are formed.

  • 1. What is a semiconductor?
    2. There are semiconductor integrated circuits, aren't there?
    3. How is an integrated circuit fabricated?
    4. Is an integrated circuit sometimes attached to the supporting material?
    5. What is a passive substrate?
    6. What are the examples of a passive substrate?
    7. When can a substrate be active?
    8. What are the examples of active substrates?

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