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THE EARLY DAYS OF THE AUTOMOBILE
1. One of the earliest attempts to propel a vehicle by mechanical power was suggested by Isaac Newton. But the first self-propelled vehicle was constructed by the French military engineer Cugnot in 1763. He built a steam-driven engine which had three wheels, carried two passengers and ran at maximum speed of four miles. The carriage was a great achievement but it was far from perfect and extremely inefficient. The supply of steam lasted only 15 minutes and the carriage had to stop every 100 yards to make more steam.ENGINE which had three wheels, carried two passengers and ran at maximum speed of four miles. The carriage was a great achievement but it was far from perfect and extremely inefficient. The supply of steam lasted only 15 minutes and the carriage had to stop every 100 yards to make more steam.
2. In 1825 a steam engine was built in Great Britain. The vehicle carried 18 passengers and covered 8 miles in 45 minutes. However, the progress of motor cars met with great opposition in Great Britain. Further development of the motor car lagged because of the restrictions resulting from legislative acts. The most famous of these acts was the Red Flag Act of 1865, according to which the speed of the steam-driven vehicles was lim ited to 4 miles per hour and a man with a red flag had to walk in front of it.
Motoring really started in the country after the abolition of this act.
3. In Russia there were cities wh ere motor cars were outlawed altogether. When the editor of the local newspaper in the city of Uralsk bought a car, the governor issued these instructions to the police: "When the vehicle appears in the streets, it is to be stopped and escorted to the police station, wh ere its driver is to be prosecuted."
4. From 1860 to 1900 was a period of the application of gasoline engines to motor cars in many countries. The first to perfect gasoline engine was N. Otto who introduced the four-stroke cycle of operation. By that time motor cars got a standard shape and appearance.
In 1896 a procession of motor cars took place from London to Brighton to show how reliable the new vehicles were. In fact, many of the cars broke, for the transmissions were still unreliable and constantly gave trouble.
The cars of that time were very small, two-seated cars with no roof, driven by an engine placed under the seat. Motorists had to carry large cans of fuel and separate spare tyres, for there were no repair or filling stations to serve them.
After World War I it became possible to achieve greater reliability of motor cars, brakes became more efficient. Constant efforts were made to standardize common components. Multi-cylinder engines came into use, most commonly used are four-cylinder engines.
5. Like most other great human achievements, the motor car is not the product of any single inventor. Gradually the development of vehicles driven by internal combustion engine - cars, as they had come to be known, led to the abolition of earlier restrictions. Huge capital began to flow into the automobile industry.
From 1908 to 1924 the number of cars in the world rose from 200 thousand to 20 million; by 1960 it had reached 60 million! No other industry had ever developed at such a rate.
6.There are about 3,000 Americans who like to collect antique cars. They have several clubs such as Antique Automobile Club and Veteran Motor Car Club, which specialize in rare models. The clubs practise meetings wh ere members can exhibit their cars. Collectors can also advertise in the magazines published by their clubs. Some magazines specialise in a single type of car such as glorious Model "T". A number of museums have exhibitions of antique automobile models whose glory rings in automobile history. But practically the best collection - 100 old cars of great rarity - is in possession of William Harrah. He is very influential in his field. The value of his collection is not only historical but also practical: photographs of his cars are used for films and advertisements.
7. In England there is the famous "Beaulieu Motor Museum" - the home for veteran cars.
The founder of the Museum is Lord Montague, the son of one of England's motoring pioneers, who opened it in 1952 in memory of his father. Lord Montague's father was the first person in England to be fined by the police for speeding. He was fined 5 pounds for going faster than 12 miles per hour!
In the Museum's collection there is a car called the Silver Ghost which people from near and far go to see. It was built by Rolls-Royce in 1907, and called the Silver Ghost because it ran so silently and was painted silver.
There is a car called The Knight. It is the first British petrol-driven car. Its top speed was only 8 m.p.h !
In the Museum there is also a two-seater car built in 1903.
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Наберите англо-русский автомобильный -их много в сети.
Насколько я понял, вы испытываете трудности с переводом технических автомобильных терминов. Зачем тогда вы дали такой большой кусок текста?
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