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  • Read the text. Fill the blanks with the sentences.
    1. Maria didn't think she'd find the trip hard because
    she'd had experience of camping with her family she'd always cycled a long way with her family she'd been on walking trips with the school
    2. What was Maria worried about during the first day's activities?
    she wouldn't complete everything in time she'd be very cold while she was there she wouldn't manage to sail in the right direction
    3. What made the climb up the rock so slow?
    the group kept slipping on the slopes several students fell and hurt themselves parts of the climb were extremely steep
    4. When Maria's group got to the top of the rocks, they
    were given a talk on the environment took photos of each other ate a big meal
    5. Maria says that by the end of the trip the girls were
    feeling keen to go home again working together better cooking food for each other
    6. What will Maria do for her next trip?
    take her family with her spend time on the beach go somewhere with wilder countryside
    Nature's cheats
    Anna is digging in the ground for a potato, when along comes Paul. Paul looks to see what Anna's doing and then, seeing that there is no one in sight, starts to scream as loud as he can. Paul's angry mother rushes over and chases Anna away. Once his mum has gone, Paul walks over and helps himself to Anna's potato.
    Does this ring a bell? I'm sure it does. We've all experienced annoying tricks when we were young - the brother who stole your toys and then got you into trouble by telling your parents you had hit him.
    (---------------------------) They're African baboons, and playing tricks is as much a part of monkey behaviour as it is of human behaviour.
    Throughout nature, tricks like this are common - they are part of daily survival. There are insects that hide from their enemies by looking like leaves or twigs, and harmless snakes that imitate poisonous ones.
    (-------------------------------) Some animals, however, go further and use a more deliberate kind of deception - they use normal behaviour to trick other animals. In most cases the animal probably doesn't know it is deceiving, only that certain actions give it an advantage. But in apes and some monkeys the behaviour seems much more like that of humans.
    What about Paul the baboon? His scream and his mother's attack on Anna could have been a matter of chance, but Paul was later seen playing the same trick on others.
    (-------------------------------) Another tactic is the 'Look behind you!' trick. When one young male baboon was attacked by several others, he stood on his back legs and looked into the distance, as if there was an enemy there. The attackers turned to look behind them and lost interest in their victim. In fact, there was no enemy.
    Studying behaviour like this is complicated because it is difficult to do laboratory experiments to test whether behaviour is intentional. It would be easy to suggest that these cases mean the baboons were deliberately tricking other animals, but they might have learnt the behaviour without understanding how it worked.
    (-------------------------------) They discovered many liars and cheats, but the cleverest were apes who clearly showed that they intended to deceive and knew when they themselves had been deceived.
    An amusing example of this comes from a psychologist working in Tanzania. A young chimp was annoying him, so he tricked her into going away by pretending he had seen something interesting in the distance.
    Another way to decide whether an animal's behaviour is deliberate is to look for actions that are not normal for that animal. A zoo worker describes how a gorilla dealt with an enemy. 'He slowly crept up behind the other gorilla, walking on tiptoe. When he got close to his enemy he pushed him violently in the back, then ran indoors.' Wild gorillas do not normally walk on tiptoe.
    (-------------------------------) But looking at the many cases of deliberate deception in apes, it is impossible to explain them all as simple imitation.
    Taking all the evidence into account, it seems that deception does play an important part in ape societies where there are complex social rules and relationships and where problems are better solved by social pressure than by physical conflict.
    (-------------------------------) Studying the intelligence of our closest relatives could be the way to understand the development of human intelligence.