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    THE OLDEST RAILWAY IN RUSSIA
    The St. Petersburg - Moscow Mainline is the oldest and the most outstanding railway in Russia. The project of this railway was proposed by P.P. Melnikov. According to his project “chugunka” was planned as a double-track line, 664 km long, with the 5 feet gauge (now the standard), steam-powered. The speed of passenger and freight trains was supposed to be 34,4 km and 16 km respectively.
    The construction began in 1843 and lasted 8 years. From the very beginning the builders faced many hardships because of severe climatic and difficult geological conditions. Hundreds of kilometers of track were laid down through forests and marshes, many rivers were crossed. The line is virtually straight and level. 185 bridges and 19 viaducts were built to make the line as straight as possible. There is a legend that the route of the railway was chosen by the Tzar Nikolay I, who drew a straight line between the two cities on the map and ordered this line to be the route of the railway. But the fact is that the construction of the line was preceded by long and thorough surveying work, a great part of which was done by P.P. Melnikov himself.
    All the component parts of the track, bridges and viaducts were produced at Russian plants by using only domestic materials, including timber for sleepers and cast iron for rails.
    One has to give credit* to the first railway builders, who laid the track in extremely difficult conditions. Nobody took care of the workers and nobody paid attention to their working conditions. People lived in “shalashes” or dug-outs; ate often tainted food; worked from dawn till sunset, often in water up to their knees and their main tools were spades, picks, axes, wheelbarrows and horse-drawn carts. The cruel exploitation of the workers was exposed by Nekrasov in his famous poem “The Railway”.
    The railroad was officially opened for traffic on November 1, 1851. The first train departed from St. Petersburg at 11.15 and arrived in Moscow 21 hours 45 minutes later. There were 17 passengers in the first-class cars, 63 – in the second-class cars and 112 – in the third-class cars. The speed of the first trains was 40 km/h but two years later it was increased up to 60 km/h. It was the world’s record in the speed of passenger trains.
    Notes: * one has to give credit – нужно отдать должное
    . Укажите, какие из следующих утверждений соответствуют содержанию текста. Используйте фразы: It is right. It is wrong. Исправьте неверные утверждения.
    The Trans-Siberian Railway is the oldest railway in Russia. 2. P.P. Melnikov made the project of the St. Petersburg – Moscow mainline. 3. It was a single-track line. 4. This line had many curves and gradients. 5. The construction of the line was preceded by long and thorough surveying work. 6. All the materials for the construction were imported from Britain. 7. Rails were made of cast iron. 8. The railway was opened for traffic in 1851. 9. The first train departed from Moscow at midnight. 10. The train consisted of first-class cars only.

  • The Trans-Siberian Railway is the oldest railway in Russia. Wrong.
    The St. Petersburg - Moscow Mainline is the oldest and the most outstanding railway in Russia.
    2. P.P. Melnikov made the project of the St. Petersburg – Moscow mainline. True.
    3. It was a single-track line. Wrong.
    According to his project “chugunka” was planned as a double-track line,
    4. This line had many curves and gradients. Wrong.
    The line is virtually straight and level.
    5. The construction of the line was by long and thorough surveying work. True.
    6. All the materials for the construction were imported from Britain.Wrong.
    7. Rails were made of cast iron. True.
    8. The railway was opened for traffic in 1851.True.
    9. The first train departed from Moscow at midnight. Wrong.
    10. The train consisted of first-class cars only.Wrong.

    Там, где написано wrong(неправильно), найдите эти предложения в тексте и напишите рядом, как в примере.

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