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Task 1. Study the text.
Criminal law is a branch of public law that defines crimes and fixes punishments. Criminal law not only determines what criminal conduct is, but also regulates the methods of capturing, charging and trying suspected crimi¬nals; imposes penalties on convicted offenders; determines the methods by which a convicted person can challenge the conviction.
The principal notion of criminal law is crime, i. e. commission of an act that violates the law and is punishable by the state.
Two things must be present for a crime to be committed: a criminal act itself (Actus Reus) and a criminal state of mind (Mens Rea). In a murder, for example, Actus Reus is the killing of a human being by another human. Mens Rea is the person's intent to do the illegal act. In law it is frequently said that an act is not a crime if done without a guilty mind. Killing someone, for instance, is not a crime if it is accidental or justified self-defense, because there was no wrongful intent.
One important principle of criminal law is that of presumption of inno¬cence. Under this principle once the defendant has pleaded not guilty his inno¬cence should be presumed throughout the entire trial until the state proves his guilt beyond reasonable doubt.
If Actus and Mens have been proved, the defendant may still avoid guilt if he can show he has a defense i.e. a reason the court should excuse his act. Different systems of law recognize different and usually limited sets of defenses. For exam¬ple, English law sometimes allows the defense of duress -being forced to commit a crime because of threats that you or someone else will be harmed if you don't.
Another defense is that of insanity. In most countries a person cannot be found guilty of a crime if, in a doctor's opinion, he cannot have been responsible for his actions because of mental illness. If it is proven the defendant will not be sent to prison, but instead to a mental hospital.
Nearly every system of law recognizes the defense of self-defense. In Eng¬lish law a defendant can avoid guilt for injuring someone if he can convince the court that the force he used was reasonable to protect himself in the circumstances.
It might be argued that a person is not responsible for his actions if he is not intoxicated (the defense of intoxication) i.e. drunk or under the influ¬ence of drugs. However, In Britain and in many other countries, there is a general principle that people who knowingly get themselves intoxicated must be held responsible for their acts.
Task 2. Answer the questions to the text in written form:
1. What is the scope of the criminal law?
2. What is the definition of a crime?
3. What must be present for a crime to be committed?
4. What is the basic principle of the criminal law?
5. What are possible defences in criminal law?
6. Can the defence of intoxication be used as a defence in court?
Task 3. Open the brackets focusing on the use of tense forms in conditional sentences:
1. If you buy shares in this company, you almost certainly (lose) your money.
2. I (buy) shares in that company if I had had money then.
3. Unless you (be) more careful, you’ll have an accident.
4. If you (not, believe) what I say, ask the others.
5. If you had painted the walls some brighter colour, the room (seem) larger.
6. If our telephone (not, be) out of order, I ring you up this morning.
7. If you (come) between two and three yesterday, you (find) me at home.
Task 4. Choose the proper modal verb from those in brackets, write the resulting sentence and translate it into Russian:
1. Take an umbrella with you when you go out. It (may; might; need to; must) rain later.
2. What was wrong with you? Why (had you to; did you have to; must you) go to hospital?
3. Travelers (had better to get; had to get better; had better get; had better got) their reservations well in advance if they want to fly during the Christmas holidays.
4. Thanks to a letter of credit the importer is able to buy without (having to pay; having paid; have paid; have to pay) in advance.
5. Because of variety of developing countries participated in OPEC, their potential impact (had _____ ignored; could _____ be ignored; had ____ to be ignored; should _____ have been ignored) _____ no longer _______ .
6. “I am going to visit Ann.” -- “You (ought; might; should; must) to telephone her first”
Task 5. Open the brackets using the required form of the Infinitive or Infinitive construction. Translate the sentences into Russian:
1.Would you like me (go) now? 2. Tom's happy (award) with the first prize. 3. I want (she, tell) me the details of the case in brief. 4. He expected (the sitting, hold) on Monday. 5. He made her (repeat) the statement in the court room. 6. Steve is known (help) them to solve a problem when they were in trouble. 7. The delegation is reported (leave) yesterday.
Task 6. Open the brackets using the gerund in the appropriate form. Translate the sentences into Russian:
1. (to be helped) by his friend, he managed to finish the work in time. 2. They broke into the house without (notice) by any of the neighbours. 3. It is a draft resolution; it needs (edit). 4. He didn't return the money he had borrowed after (promise) to do so. 5. I think the board needs urgent (summon).
Task 7. Open the brackets using the participle in the appropriate form. Translate the sentences into Russian:
1. With his brother (travel) in Europe he had to make the decision himself. 2. I don't know what was in the (burn) letter. 3. (Realize) that he was about to be late, he took a taxi. 4. (Leave) instructions for the secretary he left for a business lunch. 5. She insisted on the goods (manufacture) as soon as possible. 6. He was speaking in an (interest) voice.