• Текст
    (А) Прочитайте текст, устно переведите его на русский язык и письменно выполните
    послетекстовые упражнения.
    Stockton & Darlington Railway (S&DR) was the first world's railway to operate
    freight and passenger service with steam traction.
    In 1821, a parliamentary bill was passed to allow the building of the S&DR. The
    26-mile railway was to connect several coal mines. The original plan was to use
    horses to draw coal carts on cast iron rails. But George Stephenson, an English
    mechanical engineer, persuaded company director Edward Pease to use steam
    power. He told that a locomotive could pull 50 times the load that horses could
    draw on iron rails. Impressed, Pease agreed to change his plan.
    Stephenson surveyed the line in 1821, assisted by his
    18-year-old son Robert. Work on the track began in
    1822. Stephenson used wrought-iron rails instead of
    cast iron ones. These rails were more expensive but
    they were much stronger. On the 12-mile line
    connecting Stockton and Darlington, the rails were
    laid on wooden blocks. The 15-mile track between the
    mines and Darlington was laid on stone blocks. The
    gauge that Stephenson chose for the line was 4 feet
    8½ inch (1,435 mm). Later, it became the standard
    gauge for railways not only in Britain but also all over
    the world.
    The line's structures included one of the first railway bridges. Designed by
    architect Ignatius Bonomi, the bridge over the Skerne river in Darlington is the
    oldest railway bridge still in use today. From 1990 until 2003, the bridge
    appeared on the reverse of £5 notes issued by the Bank of England, which
    featured George Stephenson. The bridge was shown with a train crossing it.
    Edward Pease and George Stephenson jointly established a company in Newcastle
    to manufacture locomotives for the new line. The company was set up as "Robert
    Stephenson & Company". George's son Robert was appointed the managing
    director. In September 1825, the first locomotive originally named "Active" was
    completed; it was soon renamed "Locomotion № 1". It was followed by "Hope",
    "Diligence" and "Black Diamond".
    The official opening of the line took place on 27 September 1825. Large crowds of
    spectators were watching with interest George Stephenson operating the
    Locomotion № 1. The locomotive pulled 36 wagons: twelve wagons of coal and
    flour, six of guests and fourteen wagons full of workmen. Most of the passengers
    sat in open-top coal wagons, but eighteen visiting dignitaries traveled on the
    passenger coach called The Experiment.
    This coach resembled a wooden shed on
    wheels and as it had no springs it must
    have provided an uncomfortable ride.
    The first train was not fast; it took two
    hours to cover the distance of 9 miles.
    However, on one section of the line the
    locomotive was able to reach a speed of
    15 mph.
    For the first few years, horse traction
    dominated on the S&DR because steam
    traction was too expensive. But as time
    went on, steam locomotives proved to
    be more economic – they could haul
    more wagons at a higher speed. In a typical working day, the most expensive
    steam engine could haul much more coal than the cheapest horse!
    By 1833, the S&DR had become entirely steam-operated, and it gradually began to
    resemble a modern railway. Two parallel tracks were built for trains traveling in
    different directions. A simple signaling system was established to prevent train
    collisions. Trains began to run to timetable. These methods of operation became
    standard on railways across the world.
    The S&DR proved a huge financial success, and paved the way for modern rail
    transport development. In 1863, the S&DR company merged with the North
    Eastern Railway and in 1922 with the London and North Eastern Railway.
    Much but not all of the original S&DR line is still operating today.
    (Б) Перепишите следующие фразы и выпишите из текста их английские эквиваленты.
    1. тянуть повозку, гружённую углём, по чугунным рельсам
    2. полувагон для перевозки угля
    3. ехали в пассажирском вагоне
    4. развить скорость 15 миль в час на одном участке пути
    5. использовалась преимущественно конная тяга
    6. железная дорога была полностью переведена на паровую тягу
    7. поезда, идущие в противоположных направлениях
    8. чтобы предотвратить столкновения поездов
    9. примитивная система сигнальных устройств
    10. ходить по расписанию
    (В) Перепишите предложения. Если утверждение соответствует содержанию текста,
    напишите "TRUE", если не соответствует – "FALSE". Исправьте неверные утверждения.
    1. The S&DR was constructed in the 1820s and was initially meant to be a
    horse-drawn wagonway, which were then commonplace in England.
    2. The permanent way of the S&DR consisted of wrought-iron rails laid on
    wooden blocks.
    3. The first locomotive called Locomotion № 1 was built in September 1825.
    4. On the opening day, 27 September 1825, a steam locomotive successfully
    hauled a heavy train of 36 passenger coaches.
    5. At first, horse traction predominated on the S&DR because steam locomotives
    were then very expensive.
    (Г) Из четырёх предложенных вариантов, выберите в ответ на вопрос к тексту.
    1. Why did Stephenson use wrought-iron rails rather than cast iron ones?
    a) because wrought-iron rails were more liable to crack under the weight of heavy
    b) because these rails were more expensive than cast iron ones
    c) because wrought iron was stronger and more durable than cast iron
    d) because Edward Pease ordered Stephenson to use wrought-iron rails
    2. What gauge did Stephenson choose for the line?
    a) standard gauge c) narrow gauge
    b) broad gauge d) wide gauge
    3. What was the forth locomotive manufactured in Newcastle called?
    a) Diligence c) Experiment
    b) Black Diamond d) Hope
    4. Why was it uncomfortable to ride on the first passenger carriage?
    a) because this coach resembled a wooden shed on wheels
    b) because it had no springs
    c) because it was too small for seating 18 passengers
    d) because it had no roof and windows
    5. What was done to prevent train collisions on the S&DR?
    a) the S&DR became entirely steam-operated
    b) horses were used to carry passengers because it was less dangerous
    c) trains moved at a walking speed
    d) a signaling system was established and trains began to run to timetable