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  • A rail yard, railway yard or railroad yard is a complex series of railroad tracks for storing, sorting, or loading and unloading, railroad cars and locomotives. Railroad yards have many tracks in parallel for keeping rolling stock stored off the mainline, so that they do not obstruct the flow of traffic. Railroad cars are moved around by specially designed yard switchers, a type of locomotive. Cars in a railroad yard may be sorted by numerous categories, including railway company, loaded or unloaded, destination, car type, or whether they need repairs. Railroad yards are normally built where there is a need to store cars while they are not being loaded or unloaded, or are waiting to be assembled into trains. Large yards may have a tower to control operations.[1]:46
    Many railway yards are located at strategic points on a main line. Main-line yards are often composed of an up yard and a down yard, linked to the associated railroad direction. There are different types of yards, and different parts within a yard, depending on how they are built.

    For freight cars, the overall yard layout is typically designed around a principal switching (US term) or shunting (UK) technique:
    • A flat yard has no hump, and relies on locomotives for all car movements.
    • A gravity yard is built on a natural slope and relies less on locomotives; generally locomotives will control a consist being sorted from uphill of the cars about to be sorted. They are decoupled and let to accelerate into the classification equipment lower down.
    • A hump yard has a constructed hill, over which freight cars are shoved by yard locomotives, and then gravity is used to propel the cars to various sorting tracks;
    Sorting yard basics[edit]
    Main article: classification yard
    In the case of all classification or sorting yards, human intelligence plays a primary role in setting a strategy for the 'switching operations'; the fewer times coupling operations need to be made and the less distance traveled, the faster the operation, the better the strategy and the sooner the newly configured consist can be joined to its outbound train.
    • Switching yards, staging yards or Shunting yards are typically graded to be flat yards, where switch engines manually shuffle and maneuver cars from: a) train arrival tracks, to a b) consist breakdown track, c) to an consist assembly track, thence to d) departure tracks of the yard.
    o A large sub-group of such yards are known as Staging yards, which are yards serving an end destination that is also a collection yard starting car groups for departure. These seemingly incompatible tasks are because the operating or road company and its locomotive drops off empties and picks up full cars waiting departure which have been spotted and assembled by local switch engines. The long haul carrier makes the round trip with a minimal turn around time, and the local switch engine transfers empties to the loading yard when the industries output is ready to be shipped.
    o This activity is duplicated in a Transfer yard, the difference being in the latter many or several businesses and industries are serviced by the local switcher, which is part of the yard equipment, and the industry pays a cargo transfer fee to the railroad or yard operating company. In the staging yard, the locomotive is most likely operated by industry (refinery, chemical company or coal mine personnel); and ownership of the yard in both cases is a matter of business, and could be any imaginable combination. Ownership and operation are quite often a matter of leases and interests[2]
    • Hump yard and gravity yard tracks are usually highly automated and designed for the efficient break-down, sorting, and recombining of freight into consists, so they are equipped with mechanical retarders (external brakes) and scales that a computer or operator uses along with knowledge of the gradient of the hump to calculate and control the speed of the cars as they roll downhill to their destination tracks. These modern sorting and classification systems are sophisticated enough to allow a first car to roll to a stop near the end of its classification track, and, by slowing the speed of subsequent cars down the hump, shorten the distance for the following series of cars so they can bump and couple gently, without damaging one another. Since overall throughput speed matters, many have small pneumatic, hydraulic or spring-driven braking retarders (below, right) to adjust and slow speed both before and after yard switch points. Along with car tracking and load tracking to destination technologies such as RFID, long trains can be broken down and reconfigured in transfer yards or operations in remarkable time.

  • Чтобы поставить вопросы, надо хорошо знать соденржание текста.
    Допустим, что вы его знаете.
    Переходим к вопросам. они могут быть общие, специальные, аолтернативные и разделительные.
    Даже если взять первые два абзаца (до Freightyards), то можно вполне поставить эти пять вопросов.
    Просто берите первое предложение и идите дпльше предложие за предложением.
    Итак, берем первое предложение. Начинаем с общего вопроса, то есть "Является ли ж/д сортировочная станция комплексом для хранения, сортировки, погрузки и разгрузки?
    А теперь то же самое по-английски: Is a railway yard a complex series of railroad tracks for storing, sorting, or loading and unloading? То есть для вопроса мы употребляем те же самые слова, которые есть в предложении. Есткественно, порядок слов в английском вопросе будет обратным, то есть сказуемое будет опережать подлежащее.
    Далее,берем, к примеру, предложение 3. Можно к нему поставить специальный волпрос? Можно. Спрашиваем " Как передвигаются ж/д вагоны? Теперь это же самое по-английски How are railroad cars moved around? Естественно, на первом месте в вопросе специальное слово. ведь это специальный вопрос. И опять обратный порядок слов.

    И так идете дальше, ставя вопросы, которые еще не звучали, то есть альтернативный и разделительный. Но у вас всего получится 4 вопроса. а не пять. Что делать? В таком случае один из типов вопросов придется повторить, то есть задать два общих, или специальных, или альтернативных, или разделительных вопроса.
    Принцип ясен?