Ing`ые формы

  • Scientists who are concerned with such a problem generally agree that birds have some kind of so-called «second sense» that allows them to fly over land and water without getting (герундий, т.к. после предлога) lost.
    But people need help in finding (герундий) their destination when piloting (прич. 1, т.к. после when) their own airplanes.
    Navigation is the art of finding (герундий, т.к. перед стоит of) your way from where you start to your destination.
    Whether used by the seamen, explorer or the pilot, navigation falls into three basic categories: dead reckoning (отглаг. сущ, т.к. перед стоит прилагательное) which is the basis for all navigation, celestial navigation which is flying (герундий?) by the aid of the sun and other stars, and radio and radar navigation.
    Distance measuring (отглаг. сущ?) equipment now used in many airplanes tells the pilot exactly how far he is from a radio station and at what speed he is travelling (прич. 1?) over the ground.
    When certain types of weather prevent the pilot from seeing (герундий) the ground, additional radio transmitters let him make his approach to an airport by simply watching (герундий?) his flight instruments and his radio receiver indicators.
    These receivers help the pilot descend on the runway, thus landing (герундий) at an airport even though he cannot see the ground.
    At the world's larger air terminals airplanes are provided with radar guidance as another means of guiding (герундий, т.к. после of) the pilot to the destination.
    With the help of an electronic transponder in each airplane which shows it on the radar screen, radar controllers guide hundreds of airplanes to landing (прич. 1).
    Because of the great improvement in electronic and radio navigation equipment, flying (отглаг. сущ) to where you are going (прич. 1, т.к. в составе сказуемого) is done as efficiently as the birds do it and much more scientifically.

  • Distance measuring (отглаг. сущ?) equipment now used in many airplanes...---Свяжите второе слово с третьим, и вы увидите, что это не отглагольное существительное. Это, скорее всего, герундий, так как это оборудование применятся для измерения. travelling (прич. 1?)---правильно, причастие 1. simply watching (герундий?)---правильно, герундий. Видите перед словом предлог BY?

    ...thus landing (герундий) at an airport---причастие 1

    ...radar controllers guide hundreds of airplanes to landing (прич. 1)---отглагольное существительное