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functions of the executiVe
Based on his organizational theory (essentially cooperation), Barnard
discusses the functions of the executive. He believes that the executive
functions serve to maintain a system of cooperative effort. It is not quite
correct to say that the executive functions are to manage the system of
cooperative efforts because as a whole, it is managed by itself, not by the
executive, which is part of it. He argues that control relates directly to the
work of the organization as a whole rather than to the work of executives
as such. The fact that practically the control is over executives for the
most part is only due to the heavy dependence of the cooperation success
upon the functioning of the executive.
Barnard proposes three executive functions:
1) Develop and maintain a system of communication. This involves
jointly a scheme of organization (organization charts, specifications of
duties etc.) and executive personnel (the selection of personnel and the
offering of incentives etc.).
2) Promote the securing of the personal services that constitute the
materials of organizations. The work divides into two main divisions: (1)
the bringing of persons into cooperative relationship with the organization;
(2) the eliciting of the services after such persons have been brought into
3) Formulate and define the purposes, objectives, ends, of the
First, in the communication function, Barnard has mentioned both
formal and informal communication channels. But he does not address
communication from the information point of view. Since he has put too
much weight on cooperation, he does not give enough attention to the
decision right and information extraction problem. Because everyone is
working for the same common organization purpose, there is no incentive
to hide information. Thus the executive can collect all information and
make decision accordingly. This is certainly not true given the agency
Second, in the securing of personal services function, Barnard plays
down the importance of economic incentives. Again, the reason might
be the existence of common organization purpose—the workers do not
need incentives to get to work. He does mention the balance between
“inducements and contributions”, but this is against his cooperative
view—why would the employees have to make elaborate calculations of
inducements and contributions if the crux of the matter were cooperation
in a common purpose? This contradiction can be easily solved by turning
to the contract theory.
Third, in the organization purpose formation function, Barnard
deliberates on the importance of moral purpose and indoctrination.
Since the organization purpose has to be common, it must be moral.
And for people to work toward this common goal, the executive must
use propaganda and indoctrination to solve the possible conflicts.
Barnard admits that sometimes the ends of the person and the ends of
the organization are not the same. He could have proceeded from here
and arrived at conclusions much more similar to those of contract theory.
Instead, he indicates that such opposition is most likely to occur among
the lower-ranking participants in an organization and can be removed by
educating the workers. Actually, he is so obsessed with the idea of common
purposes that he claims that when they do not exist, the executive need to
manufacture them in order to maintain the cooperative system.
Помогите поставить 5 вопросов к этому . спасибо.
Я бы и не просил бы о помощи, вот только не знаю как их создавать.
У вас что-то не так с предложением, посмотрите внимательно.
1.Does Barnard discuss the functions of the executive? - общий вопрос
2.He believes that the executive functions serve to maintain a system of cooperative effort, doesn't he? - разделительный вопрос
3.Does Barnard propose three or four executive functions? - альтернативный вопрос
4.What can be easily solved by turning to the contract theory? - вопрос к подлежащему
5.What does Barnard admit? - специальный вопрос
Извините: Many British prime ministers studied at Oxford and surprise, they studied here.
Where did many British prime ministers study?
Who studied at Oxford?
Did many British prime ministers study at Oxford or Cambridge?
Our Technical Shool celebrated its 55th anniversary in 1999
1) A full range of tourist attractions include the magnificent Botanic Gardens.
2) It has a population of just over three million people.
Пожалуйста составьте 5 типов вопрос по этим предложениям!
1. What do a full range of tourist attractions include? (специальный к дополнению)
2. What includes the magnificent Botanic Gardens? (специальный к подлежащему)
3. Do a full range of tourist attractions include the magnificent Botanic Gardens? (общий)
4. A full range of tourist attractions include the magnificent Botanic Gardens, don't they? (разделительный)
5. Do a full range of tourist attractions include only the magnificent Botanic Gardens or something else? (альтернативный)
1. What has a population of just over three million people? (специальный к подлежащему)
2. Does it have a population of just over three million people? (общий)
3. What population does it have? (специальный к дополнению)
4. It has a population of just over three million people, doesn't it? (разделительный)
5. It has a population of just over three or four million people? (альтернативный)
Помогите, плиз! Составьте пять вопросов к этому тексту.
Even recycled paper starts in a tree. Trees from forests are replaced with new young trees.
The wood is cut into small pieces.
The wood chips are mix with water to produce a pulp.